Profiling Response

Racial and Ethnic Profiling

Racial profiling* is defined by Chan (2011) as any government activity—including surveillance, search and seizure, questioning, detainment, and arrest—directed at a specific individual or group based solely on race or ethnicity. The United States has engaged in racial profiling. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, Japanese immigrants and American citizens of Japanese descent were relocated to internment camps because of their race. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States, individuals of Middle Eastern descent were often targeted for “routine” searches and questioning at airports. Racial profiling can be a controversial topic both within criminal justice and among the general public.

For this Discussion, you explore the practice and impacts of racial profiling and consider whether it is ever justifiable. Be aware that your colleagues in this course may have different viewpoints than your own. Please be respectful in your posts and responses to others.

*Racial profiling includes profiling based on race and/or ethnicity

Post by Day 4 a description of at least two racial or ethnic minority groups that are regularly profiled by law enforcement. Then explain possible impacts on the criminal justice system of profiling the two groups you described. Finally, explain whether or not it is ever justifiable for law enforcement to profile individuals based on race or ethnicity. Justify your position with references to the literature and Learning Resources.

One and a half page with at least two reference….

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the readings.

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create SUBHEADINGS to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


  • Course Text: Investigating Difference: Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice
    • Chapter 8, “The Significance of Race: African Americans and Criminal Justice”
    • Chapter 9, “Unwelcome Citizens: Latinos and the Criminal Justice System”
  • Article: Brennan, P. K., & Valdenberg, A. L. (2009). Depictions of female offenders in front-page newspaper stories: The importance of race/ethnicity. International Journal of Social Inquiry, 2(2), 141–175.
  • Article: Chan, J. (2011). Racial profiling and police subculture. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 53(1), 75–78.
  • Article: Frieburger, T., Marcum, C., & Pierce, M. (2010). The impact of race on the pretrial decision. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(1/2), 76–86.
  • Article: Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (2010). And justice for some: Race, crime, and punishment in the US criminal justice system. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43, 457–479.
  • Article: Kamalu, N. C., Coulson-Clark, M., & Kamalu, N. M. (2010). Racial disparities in sentencing: Implications for the criminal justice system and the African American community. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies, 4(1), 1–30.
  • Article: Pickerill, J. M., Mosher, C., & Pratt, T. (2009). Search and seizure, racial profiling, and traffic stops: A disparate impact framework. Law & Policy, 31(1), 1–30.
  • Article: Ward, G., Farrell, A., & Rousseau, D. (2009). Does racial balance in workforce representation yield equal justice? Race relations of sentencing in federal court organizations. Law & Society Review, 43, 757–805.

  • Article: Spalek, B. (2005). British Muslims and community safety post-September 11th.Community Safety Journal, 4(2), 12–20.
  • Article: Gold, A. D. (2003). Media hype, racial profiling, and good science. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45(3), 391–399.
  • Article: Volpp, L. (2002). Critical race studies: The citizen and the terrorist. UCLA Law Review, 49.
  • Article: Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(3), 276–288.



Answer not yet available

To have this question done by our pool of professional writers, you can resubmit it here


Yourhomeworksolutions is a one-stop-shop for all your homework needs. You can purchase already completed solutions to be used as samples and you can order assignments to be done afresh by our competent writers.