Domestic terrorism poses a much greater threat to the world community due to tightened security across transnational terrorism
Bombing, in the form of an improvised explosive device (IED), is not a novel way to wreak havoc on human lives and structure. Before terrorism evolved, targeting transportation was the one best approach; many people use the transportation system due to easy access, huge gathering of individuals, economic and social infrastructure among others (Ronczkowski, 2018). Domestic terrorism poses a much greater threat to the world community due to tightened security across transnational terrorism (Gaibulloev, et al., 2012). However, transnational terrorism is still truly relevant in understanding how terrorism has evolved. The “domestic terrorism spills over to transnational terrorism as local terrorists seek greater world recognition for their cause” (Gaibulloev, et al., 2012, p. 140). Terrorists have shifted their tactics attacking property to people in a large crowd to cyber or bioterrorism, which has dwindled conventional bombing since “faceless operatives” use cyber activity to unleash terror (Ronczkowski, 2018, p. 268).
Role of CBRNE in Coming Decades
CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive) is an acronym that represent destructive material to hurt people and destroy sensitive infrastructure (Yahya et al., 2021). CBRNE has evolved over many years, but suitable training is the fundamental to the right degree of preparedness against its utilization. Whether CBRNE is deliberate or accidental, appropriate authority must put more effort on avoidance, detection, protection, decontamination, and damage control/effect management (Yahya et al., 2021). The activity of effectual response approach is deep-rooted on the above principles to thwart any form of attacks in which proactiveness, or cautiousness is quintessential to the preservation of normal functioning of community life. More resilience strategy and alliance effort must be put in place to ensure the use of CBRNE is averted all the time.
Lesson Learned in Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence
Protecting and eliminating anything that poses a great risk to homeland security requires a robust offensive and defensive counterterrorism. Likewise, one can infer that the intelligence community (IC) plays a pivotal role to gather, investigate, analyze and disseminate possible threats to homeland security both from the domestic terrorism and foreign powers that want to harm America’s ways of life (Ronczkowski, 2018; Prunckun, 2019). To forestall a possible threat, the FBI, DHS, and other IC should sustain the balance via well-administered surveillance of suspected foreign adversaries. Notably, technology has played a significant in the battle of counterterrorism and counterintelligence, especially the use of drone to gather information and destroy potential targets before they strike. Moreover, dealing with “faceless and leadership” will continue to pose a serious threat to the collective wellbeing (Ronczkowski, 2018, p. 250). Hence, technology will continue to play an important role to protecting America’s homeland.
Fix or Change
The horrendous 9/11 would have been averted if there were ample organizations processes to accelerate collaboration among different level of governments and the private sectors. The means strengthening collaboration with interagency cum local, state, and federal government, and the law enforcement agencies partners to improve collaboration on homeland security issues. Fixing federal agencies to foster interagency partnership by tackling protracted challenges and attaining significant outcomes that advance standpoint in which the U.S. government has the duty to respond to the inevitable uncertainty regarding terrorism. The more the collaboration, the better terrorists acts are averted, and civilization protected. Through this collaboration, terrorist group can be identified and designated (Ronczkowski, 2018). It is incumbent upon appropriate authority to be proactive as opposed to reactive, because prevention is better than cure.
The Bible admonishes Christians to be cautious or proactive of adversaries of devil who roar like lions striving for people to devour (King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Peter 5:8). Put simply, the intelligence community and other law enforcement agencies must be proactive as opposed to being reactive to any form of terrorist act.
Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T., & Santifort, C. (2012). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Global Policy, 3(2), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-5899.2011.00142.x
The Future is Already Here!
Terrorism will continue to change and adapt to the modern world, but at the same time, remain constant. What worked in 1920 is still applicable and practical in 2022. In 1920, an angry Italian immigrant anarchist parked a horse-drawn carriage full of explosives on Wall Street in New York City. When he detonated the bomb, he killed 38 people and injured several hundred (Sims, 2018). This incident was the first iteration of a car bomb, a commonly used weapon among terrorists today (Shvetsov et al., 2017). The future of terrorism is visible from its past, with minor differences due to technological advances. Advances in cyber and remote technology provide significant potential for terrorist organizations (Ronczkowski, 2017). Sims (2018) addressed the use of drones by terrorist organizations. While terror organizations have not yet achieved parity with the artillery of state militaries, drones provide a simple, user-friendly platform for the precision delivery of munitions. While Hezbollah was the first terrorist group to use a drone for military operations against Israeli forces in 2004, they have become more prevalent in the last five years due to their ease of access. Commercially purchased drones have significantly increased their potential payload, range, and ease of operation (Sims, 2018). These drones provide a powerful platform for delivering weapons of mass destruction. Currently, commercially available drones can carry and deliver chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive threats. They are only limited from deploying nuclear devices due to their weight (Sims, 2018). The combination of drones and weapons of mass destruction is hazardous and has already been seen overseas.
Another significant growing threat is cyberterrorism in the form of cyberattacks, potentially in coordination with conventional attacks. Virtual threats have significant potential to cause severe damage, fear, and economic loss from abroad. No longer do terrorists need to be present or nearby to execute an attack. Instead, they can wage war with a high-speed internet connection while located in a friendly host nation, providing concealment and safety (Albahar, 2017). In addition, cyber-attacks focusing on nuclear power and chemical production facilities have the potential to turn them into weapons of mass destruction with massive casualties, all from a distance. The internet is also a significant recruiting ground for terrorists. Radicalizing individuals from abroad and coordinating local attacks simultaneously with cyber attacks could have horrific consequences (Albahar, 2017). Imagine a conventional attack using explosives and firearms while power and communications are eliminated in the area; it would be disastrous. The use of cyberattacks and recruitment and radicalization from abroad are significant threats to American national security.
How Are We Doing and What Would The Author Change
Modern homeland security has effectively identified and negated intelligence and terrorist threats. However, law enforcement and intelligence officials must get it right every time, while terrorists only have to get it right once. While some incidents, such as the Boston Bombing, have occurred, no large-scale terrorist attack has been successful on American soil since September 11th, 2001(Ronczkowski, 2017). This result is a testament to the tireless effort of law enforcement and intelligence professionals. Nevertheless, there are still improvements to be made. Internet radicalization and lone-actor threats present a significant threat that has not been entirely negated (Ronczkowski, 2017). For example, since 9/11, lone terrorist actors have committed 70% of all jihadi violence. These individuals were radicalized online and struck prior to being identified and stopped (Davies, 2017). Efforts to address online radicalization and prevent lone-actor terror actors must be improved to increase overall counterterror effectiveness.
The author has one idea he would immediately institute. Local law enforcement acts as the eyes and ears of the counterterrorism community, yet many of them are entirely untrained on what to look for (Ronczkowski, 2017). Therefore, all police officers, regardless of location or department size, should receive terrorism and bomb-making material awareness courses annually. In addition, the federal government should create these courses based on recent incidents and update them annually to stay current. Education for local law enforcement is imperative to identify and prevent terrorist acts.
While terrorism is scary and fear-inducing, professionals must endeavor to fight against it from a place of strength. The book of Psalms says, “You will not fear the terror of the night, nor the arrow that flies by day” (English Standard Version Bible, 2001, 91:5). Through faith in Christ and hard work, the scourge of terrorism can be eliminated.
Albahar, M. (2017). Cyber attacks and terrorism: A twenty-first century conundrum. Science and Engineering Ethics, 25(4), 993–1006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-016-9864-0Links to an external site.
Davies, W. (2017). Counterterrorism effectiveness to jihadists in western europe and the united states: We are losing the war on terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41(4), 281–296. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2017.1284447Links to an external site.
English Standard Version Bible. (2001). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/English-Standard-Version-ESV-Bible/Links to an external site.
Ronczkowski, M. R. (2017). Terrorism and organized hate crime: Intelligence gathering, analysis, and investigations (4th ed.). CRC Press.
Shvetsov, A., Shvetsova, S., Kozyrev, V., Spharov, V., & Sheremet, N. (2017). The “car bomb” as a terrorist tool at metro stations, railway terminals and airports. Journal of Transportation Security, 10(1-2), 31–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12198-016-0177-yLinks to an external site.
Sims, A. (2018). The rising drone threat from terrorists. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 19(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1353/gia.2018.0012
Answer preview to Domestic terrorism poses a much greater threat to the world community due to tightened security across transnational terrorism