Administrative Agencies – Oversight and Accountability

Administrative Agencies – Oversight and Accountability

Question 1:

Transparency and accountability are big issues in government today. People want to know what the government is doing, how they are doing it, and whether or not it is effective. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is charged with auditing and evaluating government programs and activities. You may or may not have seen news reports about the results of GAO audits or evaluations on issues related to public policies. In some cases, the audits or evaluations provide information about ineffective rules or gaps in procedures employed by administrative agencies. The audits and evaluations of the GAO, as well as the oversight performed by the executive, legislative, and executive branches of government, impact how administrative agencies function, how agency heads and employees behave, and how the rulemaking process is executed.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Chapter 6 in the course text, Rulemaking: How Government Agencies Write Law and Make Policy and your Application Assignment this week. Think about the importance of oversight in the rulemaking process.
  • Review the article, “Agency Responsiveness to the Legislative Oversight of Administrative Rulemaking: A Case Study of Rules Review in the Illinois General Assembly.” Reflect on how oversight is used and its impact on administrative agencies.
  • Review the online article, “The Impact of Executive Order 13,422 on Presidential Oversight of Agency Administration.” Reflect on the evolution of presidential oversight of agency administration. Then consider the impact of presidential oversight on the balance between agency heads and the president and agency independence and flexibility.
  • Review the article, “Enforcement and Oversight: Using Congressional Oversight to Shape OSHA Bureaucratic Behavior.” Consider the impact of oversight on the behaviors of agency heads and agency employees.
  • Review the course media, “Administrative AgenciesOversight and Accountability,” focusing on oversight and the impact on administrative agencies, agency heads, and/or the rulemaking process.
  • Consider the importance of oversight in the rulemaking process.
  • Think about the impact of oversight on administrative agencies, agency heads, and/or the rulemaking process.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 5 an explanation of the importance of oversight in the rulemaking process. Then explain how oversight might impact administrative agencies, agency heads, and/or the rulemaking process. Be specific and use examples to illustrate your explanations.


  • Course Text: Rulemaking: How Government Agencies Write Law and Make Policy
    • Chapter 6, “Oversight of Rulemaking”
  • Article: Bowers, J. R. (1989). Agency responsiveness to the legislative oversight of administrative rulemaking: A case study of rules review in the Illinois General Assembly. The American Review of Public Administration, 19(3), 217231.
  • Article: Headrick, B., Serra, G., & Twombly, J. (2002). Enforcement and oversight: Using Congressional oversight to shape OSHA bureaucratic behavior. American Politics Research, 30(6), 608629.
  • Online Article: Hissam, M. (2008). The impact of Executive Order 13,422 on presidential oversight of agency administration, The American Review of Public Administration, 76(5), 12921307. Retrieved from

Question 2

Research and evaluation in the public and nonprofit sectors is accomplished with very limited resources. These limited resources include time, funds, knowledge, and more. These types of limitations often mean that one cannot create his or her own primary data, but instead, must use secondary data in research and evaluation projects. Secondary data are data that have been collected by another researcher at a different point in time.

For this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider the types of secondary data you might need to support your Final Project. This data may consist of published data sets (such as census data), statistics produced by governmental agencies, and so on. Identify at least two different sources of data to use for your post.

Post by Day 3 a description of the types of secondary data that would be useful in evaluating the program, problem, or policy you selected for your Final Project. Explain how it would impact the evaluation of the program, problem, or policy you identified.


  • Johnson, G. (2014). Research methods for public administrators (3rd ed.). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
    • Chapter 7, “Data Collection I: Available Data and Observation” (pp. 97–111)

Review a selection of the datasets available at the following sites:

  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved June 7, 2014, from
  • United Nations. (n.d.). Official documents and bibliographic databases. Retrieved June 7, 2014, from

APA Citation 200-300 words each






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Question 1

Rulemaking I s the process through which the executive and independent agencies use to create regulations. Whenever the legislature create statues, they assign a specific agency to draft the rule relating to such policies. The purposes of the agency in this case is to come up with the specific rules that bind that statute. For instance in statues touching on scientific studies, there is a need to establish the specific thresholds that are needed….


528 words



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